# Honours

# Honours

The Honours program is alligned to the research directions within the department.

### Theoretical Physics

# Modules

##### 711 Electromagnetism

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Electrostatics and magnetostatics applications to boundary value problems, multipole expansions, time-dependent fields, gauge transformations, absorption and dispersion of electromagnetic waves in different media, moving charges and theory of radiation.

##### 712 Lagrange and Hamilton Mechanics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Degrees of freedom, generalised co-ordinates, Lagrange equations of the first and second kind, applications, small oscillations, variational calculus, Hamilton’s principle, Noether’s theorem.tatics and magnetostatics applications to boundary value problems, multipole expansions, time-dependent fields, gauge transformations, absorption and dispersion of electromagnetic waves in different media, moving charges and theory of radiation.

##### 713 Solid State Physics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Crystal structure, lattice vibrations and phonons. Diffraction by crystals and the reciprocal lattice. Periodic crystal potentials, the tight-binding model, semi-conductors. Magnetism: para-, dia-, ferro- and antiferromagnetism.

##### 718 Radiation Interaction

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Radiation sources, the process of radioactive decay as source of radiation, interaction of photons and neutrons and charged particles with matter, isotope production with reactors and accelerators, nuclear fission as a source of radiation, lasers and microwaves as sources of radiation.

##### 719 Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Relativistic dispersion relations and quantum mechanics. Klein Gordon equation, Klein paradox. Dirac equation and spin. Covariance of the Dirac wave-function, chirality. Minimal coupling. Non-relativistic limit and Pauli equation. Relativistic treatment of the hydrogen atom. Maxwell equation as gauge theory. Radiation gauge.

##### 721 Statistical Physics B (Introduction to Interacting and Non-equilibrium Systems)

Module information: 16 credits

**Content: **Phase transitions and critical phenomena, phenomenological theories (Landau-Ginsburg, scaling hypothesis), simple model systems, approximation methods (mean field theory, self-consistent approach). Statistical physics of liquid crystals and polymers. Simulation methods. Dynamic correlation and response functions, Langevin theory, stochastic differential equations (Fokker-Planck equations).

##### 741 Physics Project

Module information: 32 credits

**Content: **Independent work on a topic that forms part of Physics, chosen in consultation with lecturers in the Department of Physics. The project should form part of the research activities of the Physics Department under supervision of a suitable supervisor. The project must be approved by the research committee of the Physics Department. A written report has to be submitted and an oral presentation must be given. Each student must also complete an oral examination.

##### 742 Special Topics in Applied Photonics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **The content may include aspects of light-matter interaction, quantum mechanics and quantum optics, atomic, molecular, solid state, or plasma physics and experimental design. The content may be of interdisciplinary nature.

##### 743 Special Topics in Biophotonics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **The content may include aspects of light-matter interaction, quantum mechanics, topics from biology, chemistry or mathematical sciences, spectroscopic techniques, imaging and microscopy. The content will be of interdisciplinary nature.

##### 744 Laser Spectroscopy

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Optical spectroscopic diagnostic instrumentation and techniques. Laser spectroscopy techniques for atoms, molecules and plasmas. High-frequency and time-resolved spectroscopy and related diagnostic instrumentation and methods. Examples of applications of spectroscopic techniques.

##### 745 Laser Technology

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Introduction to lasers, laser rate equations, population inversion, threshold gain and saturation; laser output calculations by means of the uniform field approach, multi- and single-mode oscillations, mode locking, laser resonator theory, introduction to non-linear optics.

Laser media: solid state, gas and dye lasers. Excitation techniques. Resonator types and designs. Q-switching, gain switching, mode locking, single-mode operation, wavelength tuning. Current laser systems. Applications: Scientific, industrial, communications, medical, military.

##### 746 Quantum Optics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Field quantisation and coherent states of light, atom-field interactions (classical and single photon interactions), classical and quantum coherence, non-classical states of light, theory of spontaneous emission, selected applications such as single photon experiments and cavity quantum electrodynamics and entanglement.

##### 747 Molecular Physics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Quantum mechanics of rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules. Electronic spectra of molecules. The use of symmetries in molecular physics. The interaction of light with molecules. Kinetics and dynamics of elementary molecular reactions.

##### 748 Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Structure

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Nuclear reactions: Scattering kinematics basic concepts. Elastic scattering, the optical model. The study of reaction mechanisms, e.g. compound nucleus formation, direct reactions, pre-equilibrium processes. Reactions with light projectiles, e.g. inelastic scattering, transfer reactions, knockout reactions. Heavy ion reactions, fragmentation. Electron scattering and high-energy nuclear reactions.

Nuclear structure: Two-nucleon systems (e.g. deuteron): interaction of nucleons and the inclusion of properties like charge independence and spin dependence. The Yukawa theory of meson exchange. Multiple nucleon systems: The nuclear shell model (single and multi-particle, introductory). Rotational and vibrational effects in nuclei (the collective model).

##### 749 Selected Topics in Nuclear Physics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **A selection of topics from: nuclear and particle physics, radiation and health physics, quantum mechanics, statistical physics, data analysis or experimental techniques in nuclear physics.

##### 750 Physics of Radiation Dosimetry/Radiology

**Content: **Radiation Dosimetry: Measurement of radiation, definitions of physical quantities, energy transfer, electronic equilibrium, Bragg-Gray cavity, interaction of charged particles with matter, radiation quality and range, proton dosimetry, interaction with human tissue.

Physics of Radiology: The X-ray machine, Conventional radiography, Fluoroscopy, Mammography, Computed Tomography, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

##### 751 Physics of Nuclear Medicine

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Radiation detectors, the gamma camera, quality control of the gamma camera, computers in nuclear medicine, principles of SPECT, principles of PET, statistics of counting, basic principles of tracer studies, whole body counters.

##### 752 Physics of Radiotherapy

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Dosimetry of teletherapy, filters, treatment planning, geometry of the beam, teletherapy units, quality assurance, electron therapy, brachytherapy, unsealed sources and beta irradiators.

##### 753 Radiation Protection

**Content: **Radiological protection, the shielding of neutrons and gamma rays.

##### 754 Many-body Theory

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Multi-particle wave functions and the symmetrisation postulate; creation and annihilation operators for fermions and bosons (second quantisation); variational principles and the Hartree-Fock approximation; screening and linear response; Bogoliubov transformations; superconductivity and magnetic flux quantisation.

##### 755 Relativistic Quantum Field Theory

Module information: 16 credits

**Content: **Module introduces quantum field theory. Lagrange formalism in field theory and Noether currents. Covariant quantisation of Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields. Particle interpretation, spin and statistics. Functional calculus, Grassmann variables, functional integral quantisations of gauge theories. Perturbation theory and Feynman rules. Cross-sections and decay widths in particle physics. Effective Potentials. Regularisation and renormalisation. Asymptotic freedom in gauge theories.

##### 756 Selected Topics in Theoretical Physics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **A selection of topics from: cosmology, general relativity, quantum mechanics, statistical physics, biological physics, or condensed matter physics.

##### 757 Bayesian Physics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Brief review of Bayesian probability basics. Conditional probability, product rule, Bayes’ theorem. Important discrete and continuous distributions. Parameter estimation and model comparison relation to machine learning, application to data analysis. Symmetries, entropy and information gain. Varying additional topics depending on time available.

##### 758 Dynamic Systems and Complexity

Module information: 8 credits, presentation subject to staff availability and student numbers

**Content: **Introduction to non-linear dynamical systems: Modelling, continuous and discrete mappings, stability analysis, hierarchy of chaos, strange attractors, universality and Feigenbaum constants, Hamiltonian chaos, KAM theorem.

##### 772 Optics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Geometrical, physical and quantum formalisms, polarisation (Stokes and Jones vectors), reflection, transmission and dispersion (Fresnel, Brewster, total internal reflection, double refraction), geometric-optical description of paraxial optical systems (matrix optics), diffraction and interference (three-dimensional), interferometry. Diffraction theory. Fourier optics, diffractive optics.

##### 773 Nonlinear Optics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **Principles of non-linear optics. Non-linear polarisation, non-linear optical coefficients, harmonic generation and phase matching. Anisotropy, optical modulation: Electro-optical, magneto-optical and acousto-optical modulation.

##### 774 Special Topics in Optics

Module information: 8 credits

**Content: **The content may include aspects of electromagnetism, optics and nonlinear optics, lasers, light-matter interaction, quantum optics and experimental design. The content may be of interdisciplinary nature.